Git 和 Git Flow 备忘单 Awesome Build Status ===============


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Git 备忘单可以让您免于背诵所有命令.

自由贡献,更新语法错误. 您也可以自由添加您的语言文件.




Show current configuration:
$ git 配置 --list
Show repository configuration:
$ git config --local --list
Show global configuration:
$ git config --global --list
Show system configuration:
$ git config --system --list
Set a name that is identifiable for credit when review version history:
$ git config --global “[firstname lastname]”
Set an email address that will be associated with each history marker:
$ git config --global “[valid-email]”
Set automatic command line coloring for Git for easy reviewing:
$ git config --global color.ui auto
Set global editor for commit
$ git config --global core.editor vi

Configuration Files

Repository specific configuration file [--local]:
User-specific configuration file [--global]:
System-wide configuration file [--system]:


Clone an existing repository:


通过 SSH

$ git clone ssh://


$ git clone
Create a new local repository in the current directory:
$ git 初始化
Create a new local repository in a specific directory:
$ git 初始化<directory>

Local Changes

Changes in working directory:
$ git 状态
Changes to tracked files:
$ git diff
See changes/difference of a specific file:
$ git diff<file>
Add all current changes to the next commit:
$ git 添加.
Add some changes in <file> to the next commit:
$ git add -p<file>
Add only the mentioned files to the next commit:
$ git 添加<filename1><filename2>
Commit all local changes in tracked files:
$ git commit -a
Commit previously staged changes:
$ git提交
Commit with message:
$ git commit -m &#39;消息在这里&#39;
Commit skipping the staging area and adding message:
$ git commit -am &#39;消息在这里&#39;
Commit to some previous date:
 $ git commit --date=&quot;`date --date=&#39;n 天前&#39;`&quot; -am &quot;<Commit Message Here>  ”
Change last commit:


$ git commit -a --amend
Amend with last commit but use the previous commit log message


$ git commit --amend --no-edit
Change committer date of last commit:
GIT_COMMITTER_DATE=&quot;date&quot; git commit --amend
Change Author date of last commit:
$ git commit --amend --date=&quot;date&quot;
Move uncommitted changes from current branch to some other branch:
$ git 藏匿处
$ git checkout branch2
$ git stash pop
Restore stashed changes back to current branch:
$ git stash 应用

Restore particular stash back to current branch:

  • {stash_number} 可以从git stash list 中获取
$ git stash apply stash@{stash_number}
Remove the last set of stashed changes:
$ git stash drop

A text search on all files in the directory:
$ git grep &quot;你好&quot;
$ git grep &quot;你好&quot; v2.5
Show commits that introduced a specific keyword
$ git log -S &#39;关键字&#39;
Show commits that introduced a specific keyword (using a regular expression)
$ git log -S &#39;关键字&#39; --pickaxe-regex

Commit History

Show all commits, starting with newest (it'll show the hash, author information, date of commit and title of the commit):
$ git 日志
Show all the commits(it'll show just the commit hash and the commit message):
$ git log --oneline
Show all commits of a specific user:
$ git log --author=&quot;用户名&quot;
Show changes over time for a specific file:
$ git log -p<file>
Display commits that are present only in remote/branch in right side
 $ git log --oneline<origin/master>  ..<remote/master>  - 左右
Who changed, what and when in <file>:
$ git 责备<file>
Show Reference log:
$ git reflog 显示
Delete Reference log:

$ git reflog 删除

Move / Rename

Rename a file:

将 Index.txt 重命名为 Index.html

$ git mv Index.txt Index.html

Branches & Tags

List all local branches:
$ git 分支

List local/remote branches

$ git 分支 -a
List all remote branches:
$ git 分支 -r
Switch HEAD branch:
$ git 结帐<branch>
Checkout single file from different branch
 $ git 结帐<branch> ——<filename>
Create and switch new branch:
$ git checkout -b<branch>
Switch to the previous branch, without saying the name explicitly:
$ git 结帐 -
Create a new branch from an exiting branch and switch to new branch:
$ git checkout -b<new_branch><existing_branch>

Checkout and create a new branch from existing commit

 $ git 结帐<commit-hash> -b<new_branch_name>
Create a new branch based on your current HEAD:
$ git 分支<new-branch>
Create a new tracking branch based on a remote branch:
$ git 分支 --track<new-branch><remote-branch>
Delete a local branch:
$ git 分支 -d<branch>
Rename current branch to new branch name
$ git 分支 -m<new_branch_name>
Force delete a local branch:


$ git 分支 -D<branch>
Mark HEAD with a tag:
$ git标签<tag-name>
Mark HEAD with a tag and open the editor to include a message:
$ git tag -a<tag-name>
Mark HEAD with a tag that includes a message:
 $ git标签<tag-name> - 我&#39;消息在这里&#39;
List all tags:
$ git标签
List all tags with their messages (tag message or commit message if tag has no message):
$ git tag -n

Update & Publish

List all current configured remotes:
$ git 远程 -v
Show information about a remote:
$ git 远程显示<remote>
Add new remote repository, named <remote>:
$ git 远程添加<remote><url>
Rename a remote repository, from <remote> to <new_remote>:
$ git 远程重命名<remote><new_remote>
Remove a remote:
$ git远程rm<remote>

注意: git remote rm 不会从服务器上删除远程存储库. 它只是从本地存储库中删除远程及其引用.

Download all changes from <remote>, but don't integrate into HEAD:
$ git 获取<remote>
Download changes and directly merge/integrate into HEAD:
$ git 远程拉取<remote><url>
Get all changes from HEAD to local repository:
$ git pull origin master
Get all changes from HEAD to local repository without a merge:
$ git pull --rebase<remote><branch>
Publish local changes on a remote:
$ git push 远程<remote><branch>
Delete a branch on the remote:

 $ git push<remote>  :<branch>  (自 Git v1.5.0 起)
 $ git push<remote>  - 删除<branch> (自 Git v1.7.0 起)

Publish your tags:

$ git push --tags

Configure the merge tool globally to meld (editor)

$ git config --global merge.tool meld
Use your configured merge tool to solve conflicts:
$ git 合并工具

Merge & Rebase

Merge branch into your current HEAD:
$ git合并<branch>

List merged branches

$ git branch --merged
Rebase your current HEAD onto <branch>:


$ git rebase<branch>
Abort a rebase:
$ git rebase --abort
Continue a rebase after resolving conflicts:
$ git rebase --continue
Use your editor to manually solve conflicts and (after resolving) mark file as resolved:
$ git 添加<resolved-file>
$ git rm<resolved-file>
Squashing commits:
$ git rebase -i<commit-just-before-first>






Discard all local changes in your working directory:
$ git reset --hard HEAD
Get all the files out of the staging area(i.e. undo the last git add):
$ git 重置头
Discard local changes in a specific file:
$ git checkout HEAD<file>
Revert a commit (by producing a new commit with contrary changes):
$ git 恢复<commit>
Reset your HEAD pointer to a previous commit and discard all changes since then:
$ git reset --hard<commit>
Reset your HEAD pointer to a remote branch current state.
 $ git reset --hard<remote/branch> 例如,上游/主,来源/我的特征
Reset your HEAD pointer to a previous commit and preserve all changes as unstaged changes:
$ git重置<commit>
Reset your HEAD pointer to a previous commit and preserve uncommitted local changes:
$ git reset --keep<commit>
Remove files that were accidentally committed before they were added to .gitignore

$ git rm -r --cached .
$ git 添加.
$ git commit -m &quot;删除 xyz 文件&quot;


Improved Git-flow



You need a working git installation as prerequisite. Git flow works on OSX, Linux and Windows.
OSX Homebrew:
$ brew install git-flow-avh
OSX Macports:
$ 端口安装git-flow
Linux (Debian-based):
$ sudo apt-get install git-flow
Windows (Cygwin):
You need wget and util-linux to install git-flow.

 $ wget -q -O - --no-check-certificate install<state>  | 猛击

Getting Started

Git flow needs to be initialized in order to customize your project setup. Start using git-flow by initializing it inside an existing git repository:


To use default

git流初始化 -d


Develop new features for upcoming releases. Typically exist in developers repos only.
Start a new feature:
This action creates a new feature branch based on 'develop' and switches to it.
git flow 功能启动 MYFEATURE
Finish up a feature:
Finish the development of a feature. This action performs the following:
1) Merged MYFEATURE into 'develop'.
2) Removes the feature branch.
3) Switches back to 'develop' branch
git flow 功能完成 MYFEATURE
Publish a feature:
Are you developing a feature in collaboration? Publish a feature to the remote server so it can be used by other users.
git flow 功能发布 MYFEATURE
Getting a published feature:
Get a feature published by another user.
git flow 功能 pull origin MYFEATURE
Tracking a origin feature:
You can track a feature on origin by using

git flow 功能跟踪 MYFEATURE

Make a Release

Support preparation of a new production release. Allow for minor bug fixes and preparing meta-data for a release
Start a release:
To start a release, use the git flow release command. It creates a release branch created from the 'develop' branch. You can optionally supply a [BASE] commit sha-1 hash to start the release from. The commit must be on the 'develop' branch.
git flow release start RELEASE [BASE]
It's wise to publish the release branch after creating it to allow release commits by other developers. Do it similar to feature publishing with the command:
git flow release 发布 RELEASE
(You can track a remote release with the: git flow release track RELEASE command)
Finish up a release:
Finishing a release is one of the big steps in git branching. It performs several actions:
1) Merges the release branch back into 'master'
2) Tags the release with its name
3) Back-merges the release into 'develop'
4) Removes the release branch
git flow 发布完成 RELEASE
Don't forget to push your tags with git push --tags


Hotfixes arise from the necessity to act immediately upon an undesired state of a live production version. May be branched off from the corresponding tag on the master branch that marks the production version.
Git flow hotfix start:
Like the other git flow commands, a hotfix is started with
$ git flow hotfix start VERSION [BASENAME]
The version argument hereby marks the new hotfix release name. Optionally you can specify a basename to start from.
Finish a hotfix:
By finishing a hotfix it gets merged back into develop and master. Additionally the master merge is tagged with the hotfix version

git flow 修补程序完成版本



Git flow schema