Git Tips

git-tips

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Tools:

PS:所有这些命令都在git version 2.7.4(Apple Git-66)上测试.

Everyday Git in twenty commands or so

git每天帮助

Show helpful guides that come with Git

git help -g
git log -S&#39; <a term in the source>&#39;</a>

Show changes over time for specific file

git log -p <file_name>

Remove sensitive data from history, after a push

 git filter-branch --force --index-filter&#39;git rm --cached --ignore-unmatch <path-to-your-file>  &#39;--proune-empty --tag-name-filter cat  -  --all &amp;&amp; git push origin --force --all

Sync with remote, overwrite local changes

git fetch origin &amp;&amp; git reset --hard origin / master &amp;&amp; git clean -f -d

List of all files till a commit

git ls-tree --name-only -r <commit-ish>

Git reset first commit

git update-ref -d HEAD

Reset: preserve uncommitted local changes

git reset --keep <commit>

List all the conflicted files

git diff --name-only --diff-filter = U.

List of all files changed in a commit

git diff-tree --no-commit-id --name-only -r <commit-ish>

Unstaged changes since last commit

git diff

Changes staged for commit

git diff --cached

Alternatives:

git diff --staged

Show both staged and unstaged changes

git diff HEAD

List all branches that are already merged into master

git branch --merged master

Quickly switch to the previous branch

git checkout  - 

Alternatives:

git checkout @ { -  1}

Remove branches that have already been merged with master

git branch --merged master | grep -v '^\*' | xargs -n 1 git branch -d

Alternatives:

git branch --merged master | grep -v '^\*\|  master' | xargs -n 1 git branch -d # will not delete master if master is not checked out

List all branches and their upstreams, as well as last commit on branch

git branch -vv

Track upstream branch

git branch -u origin / mybranch

Delete local branch

git branch -d <local_branchname>

Delete remote branch

git push origin --delete <remote_branchname>

Alternatives:

git push origin: <remote_branchname>

git branch -dr <remote/branch>

Delete local tag

git tag -d <tag-name>

Delete remote tag

git push origin:refs / tags / <tag-name>
git checkout  - <file_name>

Revert: Undo a commit by creating a new commit

git revert <commit-ish>

Reset: Discard commits, advised for private branch

git重置<commit-ish>

Reword the previous commit message

git commit -v --amend

See commit history for just the current branch

git cherry -v master

Amend author.

 git commit --amend --author =&#39;作者姓名 <email@address.com>  “

Reset author, after author has been changed in the global config.

git commit --amend --reset-author --no-edit

Changing a remote's URL

git remote set-url origin <URL>

Get list of all remote references

git remote

Alternatives:

git远程秀

Get list of all local and remote branches

git branch -a

Get only remote branches

git branch -r

Stage parts of a changed file, instead of the entire file

git add -p

Get git bash completion

 curl -L http://git.io/vfhol&gt;〜/ .git-completion.bash &amp;&amp; echo&#39;[ -  f~ / .git-completion.bash] &amp;&amp;.  〜/ .git-completion.bash&#39;&gt;&gt;〜/ .bashrc

What changed since two weeks?

git log --no-merges --raw --since =&#39;2周前&#39;

Alternatives:

git whatchanged --since =&#39;2周前&#39;

See all commits made since forking from master

git log --no-merges --stat --reverse master ..

Pick commits across branches using cherry-pick

 git checkout <branch-name>  &amp;&amp; git cherry-pick <commit-ish>

Find out branches containing commit-hash

git branch -a --contains <commit-ish>

Alternatives:

git branch --contains <commit-ish>

Git Aliases

git config  - 全局别名. <handle><command> 
git config --global alias.st status

Saving current state of tracked files without commiting

git stash

Alternatives:

git stash save

Saving current state of unstaged changes to tracked files

git stash -k

Alternatives:

git stash --keep-index

git stash save --keep-index

Saving current state including untracked files

git stash -u

Alternatives:

git stash save -u

git stash save --include-untracked

Saving current state with message

git stash save <message>

Saving current state of all files (ignored, untracked, and tracked)

git stash -a

Alternatives:

git stash --all

git stash save --all

Show list of all saved stashes

git stash list

Apply any stash without deleting from the stashed list

git stash适用<stash@{n}>

Apply last stashed state and delete it from stashed list

git stash pop

Alternatives:

git stash apply stash @ {0} &amp;&amp; git stash drop stash @ {0}

Delete all stored stashes

git stash clear

Alternatives:

git stash drop <stash@{n}>

Grab a single file from a stash

 git checkout <stash@{n}>   -  <file_path>

Alternatives:

git checkout stash @ {0}  - <file_path>

Show all tracked files

git ls-files -t

Show all untracked files

git ls-files  - 其他

Show all ignored files

git ls-files --others -i --exclude-standard

Create new working tree from a repository (git 2.5)

git worktree add -b <branch-name><path><start-point>

Create new working tree from HEAD state

 git worktree add --detach <path>  头

Untrack files without deleting

git rm --cached <file_path>

Alternatives:

git rm --cached -r <directory_path>

Before deleting untracked files/directory, do a dry run to get the list of these files/directories

git clean -n

Forcefully remove untracked files

git clean -f

Forcefully remove untracked directory

git clean -f -d

Update all the submodules

git submodule foreach git pull

Alternatives:

git submodule update --init --recursive

git submodule update --remote

Show all commits in the current branch yet to be merged to master

git cherry -v master

Alternatives:

git cherry -v master <branch-to-be-merged>

Rename a branch

git branch -m <new-branch-name>

Alternatives:

 git branch -m [ <old-branch-name>  ] <new-branch-name>

Rebases 'feature' to 'master' and merges it in to master

git rebase master feature &amp;&amp; git checkout master &amp;&amp; git merge  - 

Archive the master branch

git archive master --format = zip --output = master.zip

Modify previous commit without modifying the commit message

git add --all &amp;&amp; git commit --amend --no-edit

Prunes references to remote branches that have been deleted in the remote.

git fetch -p

Alternatives:

git远程修剪原产地

Retrieve the commit hash of the initial revision.

  git rev-list  - 反向HEAD |  头-1

Alternatives:

git rev-list --max-parents = 0 HEAD

 git log --pretty = oneline |  尾巴-1 |  切-c 1-40
 git log --pretty = oneline --reverse |  头-1 |  切-c 1-40

Visualize the version tree.

git log --pretty = oneline --graph --decorate --all

Alternatives:

gitk  - 所有

 git log --graph --pretty = format:&#39;%C(auto)%h |  %s |  %an  %的Ar%d”

Visualize the tree including commits that are only referenced from reflogs

git log --graph --decorate --oneline $(git rev-list --walk-reflogs --all)

Deploying git tracked subfolder to gh-pages

git subree push --prefix subfolder_name origin gh-pages

Adding a project to repo using subtree

 git subtree add --prefix = <directory_name>  / <project_name>  --squash git@github.com: <username>  / <project_name>  .git大师

Get latest changes in your repo for a linked project using subtree

 git subtree pull --prefix = <directory_name>  / <project_name>  --squash git@github.com: <username>  / <project_name>  .git大师

Export a branch with history to a file.

git bundle创建<file><branch-name>

Import from a bundle

 git clone repo.bundle <repo-dir>  -b <branch-name>

Get the name of current branch.

git rev-parse --abbrev-ref HEAD

Ignore one file on commit (e.g. Changelog).

 git update-index --assume-unchanged Changelog;  git commit -a;  git update-index --no-assume-unchanged Changelog

Stash changes before rebasing

git rebase --autostash

Fetch pull request by ID to a local branch

 git fetch origin pull / <id>  /头: <branch-name>

Alternatives:

 git pull origin pull / <id>  /头: <branch-name>

Show the most recent tag on the current branch.

git describe --tags --abbrev = 0

Show inline word diff.

git diff --word-diff

Show changes using common diff tools.

 git difftool [-t <tool>  ] <commit1><commit2><path>

Don’t consider changes for tracked file.

git update-index --assume-unchanged <file_name>

Undo assume-unchanged.

git update-index --no-assume-unchanged <file_name>

Clean the files from .gitignore.

git clean -X -f

Restore deleted file.

 git checkout <deleting_commit>  ^  -  <file_path>

Restore file to a specific commit-hash

 git checkout <commit-ish>   -  <file_path>

Always rebase instead of merge on pull.

git config --global pull.rebase true

Alternatives:

#git < 1.7.9
git config --global branch.autosetuprebase always

List all the alias and configs.

git config --list

Make git case sensitive.

git config --global core.ignorecase false

Add custom editors.

git config --global core.editor&#39;$ EDITOR&#39;

Auto correct typos.

git config --global help.autocorrect 1

Check if the change was a part of a release.

git name-rev --name-only <SHA-1>

Dry run. (any command that supports dry-run flag should do.)

git clean -fd --dry-run

Marks your commit as a fix of a previous commit.

git commit --fixup <SHA-1>

Squash fixup commits normal commits.

git rebase -i --autosquash

Skip staging area during commit.

git commit --only <file_path>

Interactive staging.

git add -i

List ignored files.

git check-ignore *

Status of ignored files.

git status  - 签名

Commits in Branch1 that are not in Branch2

git log Branch1 ^ Branch2

List n last commits

git log  - <n>

Alternatives:

git log -n <n>

Reuse recorded resolution, record and reuse previous conflicts resolutions.

git config --global rerere.enabled 1

Open all conflicted files in an editor.

 git diff --name-only |  uniq |  xargs $ EDITOR

Count unpacked number of objects and their disk consumption.

git count-objects  - 人类可读

Prune all unreachable objects from the object database.

git gc --prune = now --aggressive

Instantly browse your working repository in gitweb.

 git instaweb [--local] [--httpd = <httpd>  ] [--port = <port>  ] [ - 浏览者= <browser>  ]

View the GPG signatures in the commit log

git log --show-signature

Remove entry in the global config.

git config --global --unset <entry-name>

Checkout a new branch without any history

git checkout --orphan <branch_name>

Extract file from another branch.

 git show <branch_name>  : <file_name>

List only the root and merge commits.

git log  - 第一父母

Change previous two commits with an interactive rebase.

git rebase --interactive HEAD~2

List all branch is WIP

git checkout master &amp;&amp; git branch --no-merged
git bisect start                    # Search start 
git bisect bad                      # Set point to bad commit 
git bisect good v2.6.13-rc2         # Set point to good commit|tag 
git bisect bad                      # Say current state is bad 
git bisect good                     # Say current state is good 
git bisect reset                    # Finish search 

Bypass pre-commit and commit-msg githooks

git commit --no-verify

List commits and changes to a specific file (even through renaming)

git log --follow -p  - <file_path>

Clone a single branch

 git clone -b <branch-name>  --single-branch https://github.com/user/repo.git

Create and switch new branch

git checkout -b <branch-name>

Alternatives:

 git branch <branch-name>  &amp;&amp; git checkout <branch-name>

Ignore file mode changes on commits

git config core.fileMode false

Turn off git colored terminal output

git config --global color.ui false

Specific color settings

git config --global <specific command e.g branch, diff><true, false or always>

Show all local branches ordered by recent commits

git for-each-ref --sort = -committerdate --format =&#39;%(refname:short)&#39;refs / heads /

Find lines matching the pattern (regex or string) in tracked files

git grep --heading --line-number&#39;foo bar&#39;

Clone a shallow copy of a repository

git clone https://github.com/user/repo.git --depth 1

Search Commit log across all branches for given text

 git log --all --grep =&#39; <given-text>  “

Get first commit in a branch (from master)

 git log --onon master .. <branch-name>  |  尾巴-1

Alternatives:

 git log  - 反向高手.. <branch-name>  |  头-6

Unstaging Staged file

git reset HEAD <file-name>

Force push to Remote Repository

git push -f <remote-name><branch-name>

Adding Remote name

git远程添加<remote-nickname><remote-url>

List all currently configured remotes

git remote -v

Show the author, time and last revision made to each line of a given file

git责备<file-name>

Group commits by authors and title

git短信

Forced push but still ensure you don't overwrite other's work

git push --force-with-lease <remote-name><branch-name>

Show how many lines does an author contribute

 git log --author =&#39;_ Your_Name_Here_&#39; -  pretty = tformat: -  numstat |  gawk&#39;{add + = <!-- @doxie.inject start -->  ;  subs + = <!-- @doxie.inject end -->  ;  loc + = <!-- @doxie.inject start -->   -  <!-- @doxie.inject end -->  } END {printf“添加行:%s删除行:%s总行数:%s
“,add,subs,loc}&#39; - 

Alternatives:

 git log --author =&#39;_ Your_Name_Here_&#39; -  pretty = tformat: -  numstat |  awk&#39;{add + = <!-- @doxie.inject start -->  ;  subs + = <!-- @doxie.inject end -->  ;  loc + = <!-- @doxie.inject start -->   -  <!-- @doxie.inject end -->  } END {printf“添加行:%s,删除行:%s,总行:%s
", add, subs, loc }' - # on Mac OSX

Revert: Reverting an entire merge

git revert -m 1 <commit-ish>

Number of commits in a branch

git rev-list --count <branch-name>

Alias: git undo

 git config --global alias.undo&#39;!f(){git reset --hard $(git rev-parse --abbrev-ref HEAD)@ {$ {1-1}};  };  F&#39;

Add object notes

git notes add -m&#39;关于前一次提交的注意事项......&#39;

Show all the git-notes

git log --show-notes =&#39;*&#39;

Apply commit from another repository

 git --git-dir = <source-dir>  /.git format-patch -k -1 --stout <SHA1>  |  去-3 -k

Specific fetch reference

git fetch origin master:refs / remotes / origin / mymaster

Find common ancestor of two branches

git merge-base <branch-name><other-branch-name>

List unpushed git commits

git log --branches --not --remotes

Alternatives:

git log @ {u} ..

git cherry -v

Add everything, but whitespace changes

 git diff --ignore-all-space |  git apply --cached

Edit [local/global] git config

git config [--global] --edit

blame on certain range

 git blame -L <start>  , <end>

Show a Git logical variable.

git var -l | <variable>

Preformatted patch file.

git format-patch -M upstream..topic

Get the repo name.

git rev-parse  -  show-toplevel

logs between date range

git log --since =&#39;FEB 1 2017&#39; -  until =&#39;2017年2月14日&#39;

Exclude author from logs

git log --perl-regexp --author =&#39;^((?!excluded-author-regex).*)

Generates a summary of pending changes

git request-pull v1.0 https://git.ko.xz/project master:for-linus

List references in a remote repository

git ls-remote git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/git/git.git

Backup untracked files.

 git ls-files --others -i --exclude-standard |  xargs zip untracked.zip

List all git aliases

 混帐配置-l |  用grep其他|  SED的/ ^其他\ .// G&#39;

Alternatives:

 git config -l |  grep别名|  切-d&#39;.&#39;  -f 2

Show git status short

git status --short --branch

Checkout a commit prior to a day ago

git checkout master @ {昨天}

Push a new local branch to remote repository and track

git push -u origin <branch_name>

Change a branch base

git rebase --onto <new_base><old_base>

Use SSH instead of HTTPs for remotes

git config --global url.&#39;git@github.com:&#39;.allyOf&#39;https://github.com/&#39;

Update a submodule to the latest commit

光盘<path-to-submodule>
git pull origin <branch>
光盘<root-of-your-main-project>
git add <path-to-submodule>
git commit -m“submodule updated”